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Le droit pour tous la connaissance de ses origines

dimanche 16 juin 2013 par Jean-Jacques Chavign

 

Nicolas Sarkozy, selon Valeurs actuelles [1], affirmait «  btons rompus » : « Tout le monde veut savoir s’il y a du cheval dans ce qu’on mange. Mais la traabilit des enfants, qu’est-ce qu’on en fait ? […] Et le petit, plus tard, quand il demandera qui sont ses parents ? On lui rpondra : “dsol, il n’y a pas de traabilit” ? ».

Ces propos, pour le moins choquants, considrent les enfants comme des objets, des « morceaux de viande ». Ils ne doivent pas empcher de prendre en considration le problme subjectif que peut poser le secret de leur origine. Pour les enfants « trouvs », il semble malheureusement le plus souvent difficile de trouver une solution leur problme. Il n’en va pas de mme pour de nombreux adopts et pour ces « mres de l’ombre » qui ont abandonn leur enfant dans le cadre d’un « accouchement sous X ».

Du « secret rvolutionnaire » l’ « accouchement sous X » [2]

Le dcret du 23 juin 1793 de la Convention nationale organisait la confidentialit de l’accouchement d’une femme si elle le souhaitait. Le but tait de protger une femme, enceinte sans tre marie, de la vindicte sociale en lui permettant d’entrer dans une maison cre cet effet dans chaque district. Le dcret prcisait qu’« elle pourra y entrer telle poque de la grossesse qu’elle voudra ». Le but de ce « secret rvolutionnaire » n’tait pas d’organiser l’abandon de l’enfant mais au contraire de l’viter. Il n’tablissait pas de secret entre la femme et son enfant mais avait simplement pour objectif de la protger de son entourage.

Ce dcret ne fut pas appliqu et le « secret » qu’il instituait fut, par la suite, compltement dtourn de son objectif initial.

La loi de 1904 fit un grand pas vers un tout autre « secret » puisque les seules informations que recevrait la mre au sujet de son enfant seraient « vivant » ou « dcd ». L’Assistance publique, dans les faits, devenait gardienne du secret de l’identit de la mre. mile Alcindor [3] expliquait le sens de cette loi « Le secret est motiv pour des raisons d’ordre et de scurit publique […] La mre qui a une faute cacher son mari, ses parents, des tiers, ne doit pas craindre des rvlations pour son honneur ou sa considration et ne doit pas tre pousse l’infanticide ».

En 1941, un dcret-loi du marchal Ptain sur la protection de la naissance, liait le secret de l’accouchement et la gratuit de l’accouchement l’anonymat de la mre. Ce dcret fut reformul et intgre au Code de la famille en 1956 sous la forme de l’ « accouchement sous X ». L’accouchement sous X organise une fiction juridique par laquelle un accouchement est rput n’avoir jamais eu lieu. A l’inverse du secret rvolutionnaire de 1793 qui avait pour objectif de dissuader la mre d’abandonner son enfant, le secret ne pouvait plus tre demand que pour abandonner.

Dans les annes 1950, la fonction « morale » passa au second plan et le but premier devint la rponse une demande sociale sans cesse accrue d’adoption. L’ide que pour pouvoir accoucher sous X, il fallait abandonner l’enfant, fut de plus en plus rpandue, bien que sans support lgal ou rglementaire, notamment par nombre d’institutions prives qui expliquaient la mre que c’tait pour le bien de l’enfant et qu’il s’agissait d’un « acte d’amour » lui permettant d’tre rapidement adopt.

L’adoption plnire

L’adoption simple (qui est toujours mise en œuvre par les articles 360 et suivants du code civil) laissait subsister des liens juridiques entre l’enfant et sa famille d’origine.

La loi du 11 juillet 1966 institua l’« adoption plnire ». Un nouveau lien de filiation se substituait au premier. Il tait alors possible de mimer la filiation biologique et de laisser croire l’enfant que ses parents adoptifs taient ses parents biologiques. L’enfant adopt n’tait d’ailleurs plus « fils de » ses parents adoptifs mais « n de » ses parents adoptifs sur son livret de famille. L’accouchement « sous X » tait bien sr une aubaine pour ce type d’adoption.

Cette substitution du lien de filiation tait d’autant plus forte que l’ordonnance du 23 aot 1958 avait supprim les actes de naissance d’origine (sur lesquels figuraient les noms et prnoms donns par l’officier d’Etat civil, la date mais pas le lieu de naissance) et avait dcid de dlivrer leur place des actes naissance dits « provisoires » indiquant un faux lieu de naissance, afin de rendre trs difficile toute cherche de ses origines par l’enfant abandonn.

Le refus du secret par les associations d’adopts

La DPEO (Droit des pupilles de l’Etat leurs origines) fut cre en 1978, elle devint ensuite la DPEAO (Droit de pupille de l’Etat et des adopts leurs origines). De nombreuses associations d’adopts la recherche de leurs origines se crrent par la suite.

L’adoption plnire n’est pas remise en cause par les associations d’adopts la recherche de leurs origines. L’autorit parentale, la filiation ne sont donc en rien fragilise par les demandes de ces associations. Les associations d’adopts reconnaissent toutes que la filiation adoptive est la vritable filiation. Mais l’enfant qui l’on a menti, en a un pressentiment aliment par un signe ou un silence, imperceptibles aux autres, mais qui provoquent chez lui un malaise qu’il ne s’explique pas. C’est ce mensonge qui remet le plus srement en cause la qualit des relations de filiation entre l’enfant adopt et ses parents adoptants.

Beaucoup d’adoptants accompagnent d’ailleurs, aujourd’hui, leur enfant dans ses recherches. Dans l’immense majorit des cas de « retrouvailles » entre l’enfant et la mre qui l’a mis au monde, des liens d’amitis, d’affection, de connivence se sont crs mais la relation entre adoptants et adopt en est sortie, finalement, renforce.

Ce qui est en cause n’est pas une question de « liens du sang » mais bien une question sociale, la question du droit, pour chacun, de pouvoir construire son identit et d’avoir accs toutes les donnes ncessaires cette construction.

Le rapport de la sociologue Irne Thry affirmait, en 1998 [4] : « le vide de filiation, le secret organis par la loi, sont souvent d’une souffrance aigu pour les enfants ns ainsi : il est peut-tre encore pire de savoir que l’effacement de leur origine a t organis par la socit que d’affronter le silence de l’inconnu, comme lorsqu’on est enfant trouv ».

Le refus du secret par les « mres de l’ombre »

L’AMO (Association des mres de l’ombre) a t cre en 1998 et a permis l’expression d’une autre souffrance spcifique.

Dans l’immense majorit des cas, la mre n’a pas choisi d’abandonner son enfant, ni de garder le secret vis--vis de son enfant. Elle souhaitait le secret pour se protger de son entourage et on lui a fait croire que l’« accouchement sous X tait la seule solution pour que l’enfant soit adopt rapidement ».

Mais, ces mres avaient port leur enfant pendant 9 mois et cela ne pouvait tre effac d’un trait de plume. Elles ne pouvaient pas non plus faire le deuil de leur enfant : comment faire le deuil d’une personne vivante ?

Toute les mres ayant accouch sous X ne souhaitent pas que soient mis fin au secret de leur identit mais celles qui le souhaitent et qui souffrent de ce qui leur a t impos, ont le droit de savoir ce qu’est devenu leur enfant. Les associations des « mres de l’ombre » prcisent trs nettement que leur objectif est d’obtenir un droit et non une obligation.

La mre abandonnante doit toujours avoir droit la confidentialit de son accouchement mais cette confidentialit ne doit pas tre synonyme de secret. Le fait qu’un organisme indpendant puisse prvenir cette mre que son enfant la recherche ne signifie pas que cette confidentialit n’est plus protge. C’est elle qui peut alors choisir de donner suite ou non la requte et aux « retrouvailles » ventuelles. Mais encore faut-il pour cela que l’identit de la mre ait t conserve en lieu sr et que l’organisme indpendant ait pu y avoir accs. La recherche doit, d’ailleurs, pouvoir se faire dans les deux sens ascendants vers descendants comme descendants vers ascendants.

La « loi Royal »

Le projet de loi de Sgolne Royal a t adopt le 10 janvier 2002.

Cette loi incitait les femmes ne plus accoucher « sous X » mais ne supprimait pas cette procdure. La mre tait invite laisser des informations « non identifiantes » sur sa sant, celle de son pre, les circonstances de sa naissance. Elle pouvait, galement, indiquer son identit sous pli ferm. L’automaticit entre secret et abandon tait rompue. L’tat civil « provisoire » cre par l’ordonnance du 23 aot 1958 tait supprim. La loi Royal s’tait oriente vers un retour au « secret rvolutionnaire » mme si elle n’tait pas alle jusque-l.

Cette loi crait galement un Conseil national pour l’accs aux origines personnelles (Cnaop). Cet organisme neutre avait pour fonction de permettre la cration de liens entre l’enfant et la mre. L’efficacit de cet organisme dpend du nombre de « secrets » qu’il aura grer et ce nombre dpend notamment de la faon dont les institutions prives mettent en œuvre les prescriptions de la loi Royal. En dcembre 2011, le Cnaop avait reu moins de 5 000 demandes (de l’ordre de 1 % 2 % des adultes ns sous X). Le problme des moyens concrets de faire respecter un droit abstrait (celui du droit de connatre ses origines) reste donc presque entier.

Les associations d’adopts avaient, aprs l’adoption de la « loi Royal », fait connatre leur insatisfaction. Le Comit des X en colre affirmait ainsi : « Nous rclamons pouvoir tre dpositaires de l’identit de nos parents de naissance notre majorit (…) Ces identits ne doivent pas tre considrs comme une aumne que l’on nous fait mais comme un droit » [5].

L’arrt Odivre de la Cour europenne des droits de l’homme

Pascale Odivre souffrait normment de l’ignorance de ses origines. En 1998, alors ge de 33 ans, elle avait fait un recours auprs de cette Cour pour obtenir des informations sur sa naissance. Ces informations lui avaient t refuses par la DDASS, au nom du droit au secret pour la mre qui l’avait mise au monde.

La Cour europenne des droits de l’homme a rendu son arrt en fvrier 2003 et a rejet (par 10 voix contre 7) la requte de Pascale Odivre. Les attendus de l’arrt reprennent les arguments de loi Mattei de 1996 et confondent donc secret des origines et droit la confidentialit pour la mre abandonnante. Les attendus vont cependant plus loin et invoquent « le droit la vie, valeur suprieure » et le « souci d’viter les avortements » !

L’avis du Comit national d’thique et la dcision du Conseil constitutionnel

Le Comit national d’thique [6], dans son avis du 24 novembre 2015, reconnaissait que « la qute des origines est une tape naturelle et ncessaire dans le processus de construction de la personnalit de chacun ». Il prcisait : « La question de la vrit sur l’origine dpasse la seule rfrence des donnes biologiques. L’enfant souhaite tre inform sur son histoire, plus que sur ses gnes. Il demande une inscription dans une filiation… ».

Mais cet avis continuait ne pas distinguer clairement « secret » et « anonymat » et allait jusqu’ affirmer : « L’accouchement sous X est une manire pour la mre de se protger dans une situation dramatique tout en prservant la vie de l’enfant ». Il considrait galement que « Le droit au respect de la vie prive de la femme qui accouche a t clairement affirm » par l’arrt Odivre de la Cour europenne des droits de l’Homme du 13 fvrier 2013.

En mai 2012, le Conseil constitutionnel confirmait la constitutionnalit de l’accouchement sous X.

Nous sommes donc encore loin de la nouvelle adoption souhaite par Michel Cahen qui « deviendrait celle d’“enfants complets”, d’enfants mtis dots de toutes leurs histoires croises, aptes construire leur identit sociale apaise. Fusionnant les qualits des anciennes “adoption simple” et “adoption plnire” au profit des droits de l’enfant, la nouvelle lgislation permettrait, alors, son adoption entire  ». [7]

Notes

[1] Valeurs actuelles du 07/03/2013 « Dans la tte de Nicolas Sarkozy ».

[2] Voir ce sujet le remarquable ouvrage de Michel Cahen « Accouchement anonyme et adoption plnire – Une dialectique des secrets » - ditions Karthala – Questions d’enfances – 2003.

[3] mile Alcindor « Les enfants assists » - Paris, mile Paul, 1912.

[4] Irne Thry « Couple, filiation et parent aujourd’hui. Le droit face aux mutations de la famille et de la vie prive » Rapport la ministre de l’Emploi et de la Solidarit et au Garde des Sceaux, ministre de la Justice - Paris, Odile Jacob - 1998.

[5] « Les X en colre, trs en colre » Actualits sociales hebdomadaires, 13 avril 2001.

[6] Avis n°90 de Comit consultatif national d’thique (CCNE) « Accs aux origines, anonymat et secret de la filiation » 24 /11/2005.

[7] Ouvrage cit, page 220.

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 Le droit pour tous - la connaissance de ses origines 27 février 2017, par Kira Beasley
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 Le droit pour tous - la connaissance de ses origines 13 mars 2017, par Hortense Eklund
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