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Trop gros le code du travail ?

jeudi 10 octobre 2013 par Gérard Filoche

 
Nous reproduisons ici un article paru dans la revue Démocratie & Socialisme de septembre, repris d’une des chroniques hebdomadaires de notre camarde Gérard Filoche dans l’Humanité-Dimanche.

Ils haïssent tellement le Code du travail, qu’il faut en permanence qu’ils le remettent en cause. Voilà François Bayrou, ce vrai faux centriste plus à droite que les autres, qui s’y met : il montre un Code du travail français, énorme, et un code du travail Suisse, light, et il affirme que tous nos maux viennent de là ; le Code est trop gros ! Il faudrait donc encore des « chocs de simplification » (sic). Sur internet, circule un montage ou l’on voit cinq codes différents jugés en "grammes" :
Le Code, il est vrai, s’est étoffé de 1910 à 2010. Mais on est passé en même temps de 3 millions à 18 millions de salariés. Et les autres codes, code civil, code pénal, code du commerce, ont grossi parallèlement de la même manière.

Aujourd’hui, 93 % des actifs sont salariés. Le code du travail, en fait, mesure le degré de notre civilisation. Là où il y a du droit DU travail, il y a du droit AU travail. Le Code exprime 130 ans d’évolution des rapports de forces sociaux. Il est fait de sueur, de larmes et de sang : chaque article, chaque alinéa, chaque décret, chaque arrêté résulte de combats et d’âpres négociations, d’accords minutieux ou de votes contestés au Parlement ; il a souvent été rédigé à la virgule près.

Le Code contraint l’employeur à payer non seulement l’acte productif, mais aussi tout ce qui le permet : le repos, les congés payés, le logement, le transport, la formation, la protection contre le chômage, les accidents du travail, la maladie, la vieillesse. Il aborde le droit de grève, les institutions représentatives du personnel, les droits syndicaux, l’inspection du travail, les prud’hommes (Michel Sapin veut supprimer les élections prud’hommes !). C’est le droit le moins enseigné, le plus dénigré, le plus fraudé, le moins sanctionné.

Et en fait, il n’est même pas « gros » : la photo est manipulée. C’est parce que les éditeurs ont grossi le format, avec des caractères plus gros mais, en vérité, il a été diminué de 10 % en signes lors de la « recodification » par ordonnance entre 2004 et 2008. C’est la droite qui a « recodifié » : c’est elle qui a fait 1890 subdivisions au lieu de 271 et divisé 1891 articles de loi en 3652 parties. C’est elle qui a tout redécoupé, renuméroté avec 4 chiffres qui a déclassé 500 lois en décret. C’est toujours le patronat qui complique les lois simples : 35 h, 48 h, 60 ans…

Mais au bout du compte pas plus de 10 articles essentiels servent aux prud’hommes et les 4/5 des 8 livres du Code ne sont pas des lois mais des décrets, arrêtés ou commentaires de jurisprudence. Si on ne retient que la partie législative, il n’est pas plus gros que le code… suisse. Bayrou nous escroque en jouant sur la « grosseur » : des milliers de précisions indispensables, concrètes, vitales, touchent à tous les métiers, branches, situations de travail, il n’y a rien de trop, ni de « compliqué ». D’ailleurs ceux qui le trouvent « compliqué » sont souvent ceux qui défendaient le Traite constitutionnel européen et l’ont soumis au vote des Français…

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