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Le bilan de la droite en Alsace

Clientélisme, autonomisme, et improvisation

mardi 1er décembre 2015 par Thomas Risser

 
À la veille du premier tour des régionales, nous reproduisons ici une contribution de notre camarade Thomas Risser (membre du bureau fédéral du Parti Socialiste du Bas-Rhin) sur le bilan de Philippe Richert (LR) à la tête de la région Alsace. Cet article est également publié dans la revue Démocratie&Socialisme n°229.

La région Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine connaît pour ces régionales une situation politique unique : les têtes de liste PS et LR sont tous deux sortants, l’un en Lorraine, l’autre en Alsace. Il est donc possible de comparer le bilan de la gauche à celui de la droite.

En Alsace, le sortant, c’est Philippe Richert, qui dirige la région depuis 2010. Sa situation politique est confortable. La région est à droite sans discontinuer depuis 1986, elle y dispose depuis de la majorité absolue, ainsi que dans les deux départements qui la composent, le Bas-Rhin et le Haut-Rhin. Proclamé adversaire de la « grande région » Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, il en est aujourd’hui la tête de liste LR.

Une politique économique improvisée

L’Alsace est en proie à des mutations industrielles majeures depuis dix ans ; pendant des décennies, la formation professionnelle a été orientée vers le travail frontalier peu qualifié en Allemagne et en Suisse, mais celui-ci décroît rapidement. Dans le même temps, ses grandes industries multiplient les plans sociaux. Longtemps citée comme la région au plus faible taux de chômage de France, l’Alsace connaît un rattrapage impressionnant qui l’a ramenée à la moyenne nationale en quelques années. Le dernier schéma de développement économique date de 2006, et aucun bilan n’en a été fait. Ce n’est que dans le cadre de l’exercice Alsace 2030, imaginé en fin de mandat, que la majorité régionale s’est résolue à préparer un nouveau schéma, de toute façon caduque du fait du redécoupage territorial. Le budget de la formation professionnelle est en baisse constante depuis le début du mandat : -25% depuis 2010. Les crédits pour la recherche et l’innovation ont diminué de 21%. Quant à la marque Alsace (2013), son budget n’a cessé de faire l’objet de dépenses en constante augmentation. Elle a coûté en 2014, 565 000€ dont 541 000€ destinés à la communication. Cela, sans qu’elle garantisse l’origine alsacienne des biens et des services vendus sous son logo.

Un aménagement du territoire impensé

Aucun schéma d’aménagement du territoire n’a été mis en œuvre. Pas plus qu’un établissement public foncier. La politique menée en matière de transports n’est pas suffisamment orientée vers le fret ferroviaire sur l’axe rhénan. En Alsace, les dépenses consacrées à ce dispositif sont même... en baisse. C’est bien une politique du « tout routier » qui est menée. Enfin, les investissements en matière d’énergie et d’environnement sont en chute libre : - 18%.

Une politique culturelle clientéliste

L’augmentation budgétaire entre 2011 et 2015 s’explique par le financement du musée Lalique, la région étant aujourd’hui son principal financeur. Ce musée a surtout une qualité inestimable : il est situé dans le fief électoral de Philippe Richert. L’éparpillement des structures culturelles, une multiplication des petites subventions à destination des collectivités et des associations proches de la majorité, voilà ce qui caractérise la politique culturelle menée.

La jeunesse et l’éducation : les grandes oubliées

Depuis 2010, le budget pour l’éducation et la formation, c’est - 7,7 %. Le budget accordé aux établissements a diminué de 2M d’euros entre 2014 et 2015, en ce qui concerne les crédits de paiement. Les investissements sont en forte baisse : -36%. Bien sûr, la gratuité des manuels scolaires n’existe pas, contrairement à la Lorraine et à la Champagne.

La résurgence de l’autonomisme alsacien

Enfin, Philippe Richert a joué avec le feu en soufflant sur les braises oubliées du régionalisme et de l’autonomisme pour s’opposer à la réforme territoriale. On assiste à un véritable revival de l’autonomisme où peurs et fantasmes sont véhiculés sur une soi-disant abrogation du droit local, et une dilution d’une « patrie » alsacienne, dans la grande région. Cela alimente le terreau d’organisations d’extrême droite, comme Unser Land et Alsace d’abord. Mais, c’est oublier que l’unité de l’Alsace, c’est bel et bien la France qui l’a faite et que son identité est garantie aujourd’hui par la République française.

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