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Une jeunesse acculée

mercredi 13 janvier 2016 par Philippe Lewandowski

 
Nous publions ci-dessous la chronique Palestine de notre ami Philippe Lewandowski, parue dans Démocratie&Socialisme n°229/230 de novembre-décembre 2015.

Les perspectives qui s’offrent à la jeunesse palestinienne ne sont guère riantes. Tout est fait pour lui rendre la vie insupportable. Il ne lui reste que l’exil (encouragé), le désespoir (entretenu), ou la révolte (impitoyablement réprimée). Il est difficile d’être palestinien, certes pas seulement lorsqu’on est jeune, mais la jeunesse est plus sensible, et la sève du printemps à venir fait sans surprise preuve d’impétuosité.

Données démographiques

En dépit du caractère à la fois incomplet et fragmentaire des données disponibles, force est de reconnaître que la jeunesse constitue une composante majeure de la société palestinienne. En 2010, un quotidien israélien estimait que l’âge médian [1] était de 20 ans en Cisjordanie, et de 17,5 ans dans la bande de Gaza [2]. En 2015, les pyramides des âges publiées sous la direction de Jean-Herman Guay par la Faculté des sciences humaines de l’université de Sherbrooke (Canada) estiment que 51,11 % des Palestiniens avaient de 0 à 20 ans en 2010, et proposent une projection pour 2020 : cette tranche d’âge représentera encore 44,69 % de la population palestinienne [3]. Mais de quels Palestiniens s’agit-il ? Ceux de Cisjordanie et de la bande de Gaza uniquement ? Qu’en est-il de ceux vivant au sein de l’État d’Israël officiellement reconnu ? De ceux vivant au sein des territoires illégalement annexés (Jérusalem-Est, Golan syrien) ? De ceux qui vivent en camps de réfugiés dans les pays limitrophes ? De ceux qui vivent en exil ?

La tentation du départ

Car l’exil semble parfois une solution individuelle, douloureuse mais préférable à une situation de plus en plus difficile à supporter. En témoignent aussi bien des œuvres cinématographiques (Les Chebabs de Yarmouk, film d’Axel Salvatori-Sinz) que littéraires (Out of it, roman de Selma Dabbagh). Mais, loin de présenter une perspective, il ne permet que de souffler un peu, de reconstruire ses forces, et ne met aucunement en question le droit inaliénable au retour.

Les gestes criminalisés

Cette pause demeure cependant hors d’atteinte pour la majorité des jeunes Palestiniens. Et ceux-ci, poussés à bout par une occupation aussi cynique que brutale, n’ayant plus confiance en l’Autorité palestinienne ni dans les partis politiques [4], se lancent, seuls, dans des actions désespérées, préférant « mourir en combattant que vivre à genoux ». C’est seulement alors que la grande presse occidentale se rappelle leur existence, et agite le spectre d’une violence qu’elle refuse de comprendre. Mahmoud Darwich lui avait répondu d’avance : « Nous aussi, nous aimons la vie, quand nous en avons les moyens. »

Un sursaut légitime

Nous ne les condamnons pas : qu’avons-nous fait pour leur proposer une issue acceptable, un espoir qui ne soit pas du vent ? Adossés à des discours trompeurs, les dirigeants occidentaux soutiennent de facto l’oppresseur et la colonisation réellement existante ininterrompue. L’Union Européenne persiste à maintenir des relations privilégiées avec un État dont les actions contreviennent quotidiennement non seulement au droit international mais aussi aux droits de l’homme les plus élémentaires. Et le prix déjà payé par la jeunesse palestinienne est lourd [5].

Les pas à venir

Mais qu’elle ne meure pas ! Qu’elle vive ! Nous sommes conscients de l’immensité des tâches qui l’attendent ; et le chemin qui mène de la révolte spontanée à l’élaboration d’une stratégie est semé d’embûches. Il lui incombe de les surmonter, et de reprendre le flambeau allumé jadis par ses prédécesseurs. Ce n’est pas là une leçon, car nous aussi, nous avons à apprendre.

Nous avons à apprendre à voir et écouter, à apprendre à nous indigner. Nous avons à trouver le moyen d’obliger les dirigeants occidentaux à modifier une politique internationale qui qui encourage et perpétue une injustice. C’est là notre tâche.

La jeunesse palestinienne a besoin d’espoir et de perspectives : contribuons à les faire apparaître.

Notes

[1] Âge médian : la population au-dessus de l’âge cité est aussi nombreuse que celle qui n’a pas encore atteint cet âge.

[2] Yaron Druckman, Palestine : la vérité des chiffres, consulté le 12-11-2015.

[3] http://perspective.usherbrooke.ca/bilan/servlet/BMPagePyramide ?codePays=PSE, consulté le 12-11-2015.

[4] Pierre Barbancey, Les enfants d’Oslo comptent résister par tous les moyens, dans L’Humanité, 23-25 octobre 2015.

[5] Voir tableau. Ces données sont antérieures à octobre 2015 !

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