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La conférence de Zimmerwald

mercredi 3 février 2016 par Jean-François Claudon, Julien Guérin

 
Nous publions ici un article paru dans la revue Démocratie&Socialisme de novembre-décembre 2015.

En 1915, le premier conflit mondial s’installe dans la durée, dissipant l’illusion d’une guerre courte. Les soldats ont passé un premier hiver terrible dans la boue des tranchées tandis qu’à l’arrière, le refus de la boucherie commence à s’organiser. D’abord presque unanimement ralliées à l’Union sacrée, sonnées, désorganisées par la mobilisation, les organisations ouvrières européennes relèvent la tête.

Quelques grandes consciences avaient secoué, malgré la répression, le joug nationaliste en défendant un internationalisme maintenu, qui visait à faire comprendre aux travailleurs que cette guerre n’était pas la leur. La fraction bolchevique des socialistes russes, dirigée par Lénine alors en Suisse, avait pris position pour « la transformation de la guerre impérialiste en guerre civile ». C’est le fameux « défaitisme révolutionnaire » brandi comme une preuve accablante de trahison par les anti-communistes de toute obédience, incapables de comprendre que le révolutionnaire russe employait cette formule provocante, non en direction des masses, dont il était totalement coupé, mais en direction des cadres ouvriers russes, victimes de la répression tsariste et soumis à la propagande chauvine de la majorité menchevique.

Si Lénine était le plus radical des oppositionnels, il était loin d’être le seul. Des noyaux militants se regroupaient alors dans tous les pays pour lutter contre les « socialistes de guerre » alors à la tête des partis et des syndicats ouvriers (Guesde-Sembat et Jouhaux en France, Ebert-Scheidemann et Legien en Allemagne...). Mais aussi pour critiquer ces pacifistes modérés qui en appelaient trop souvent aux gouvernements impérialistes pour mettre fin à la boucherie qu’ils avaient eux-mêmes provoquée. Le chauvinisme, tel était pour nombre d’oppositionnels le nom de l’ennemi irréconciliable de l’internationalisme ouvrier, pourtant tapi dans ses propres rangs. Ces oppositionnels se comptent notamment parmi les syndicalistes de la Vie ouvrière en France, mais aussi parmi les dirigeants de l’aile gauche du SPD autour de Rosa Luxembourg et Karl Liebknecht, qui avaient dès 1914 pris de fermes positions contre le vote des crédits de guerre.

Des internationalistes en calèche

Réunie du 5 au 8 septembre 1915 dans un petit village suisse près de Berne, la conférence de Zimmerwald marque la première tentative d’unification des forces sociales et politiques qui refusent la poursuite du conflit. Convoquée par les socialistes suisses opposés à la guerre et par le parti italien, qui était courageusement resté neutraliste malgré l’entrée en guerre de leur pays du côté de l’Entente, cette réunion rassemble 38 délégués qui constituent à bien des égards un véritable gratin du socialisme de gauche d’avant-guerre.

On compte parmi les participants de nombreux exilés russes (Lénine, Zinoviev, mais aussi Trotski), des militants polonais (Karl Radek), des Allemands, des Italiens, des Norvégiens, un délégué du Bund (parti ouvrier juif d’Europe de l’Est), des Roumains dont le futur dirigeant de l’Ukraine rouge Christian Rakovsky, ainsi que les syndicalistes français Merrheim, de la fédération des Métaux, et Bourderon, de la fédération du Tonneau, qui était par ailleurs membre de la SFIO. Les animateurs de la Vie ouvrière avaient tenté de convaincre les dirigeants de la fédération socialiste de Haute-Vienne, dont Pressemane, de participer à la conférence, mais, dans la discussion limousine, « les éléments modérés et timorés l’avaient emporté », selon Alfred Rosmer, auteur d’une monumentale histoire du Mouvement ouvrier pendant la première guerre mondiale.

Plusieurs sommités de la gauche sociale-démocrate n’ont pu se rendre en Suisse, empêchés par leurs Etats qui veillaient au grain. Liebknecht a été envoyé au front malgré son âge, suite au succès de son initiative du printemps proclamant aux travailleurs que leur « principal ennemi était dans leur pays ». Rosa Luxemburg est quant à elle emprisonnée depuis la fin de l’année 1914. Ce n’est pas sans raison que, comme l’a plus tard affirmé Lénine avec son ironie habituelle, « tous les internationalistes d’Europe p[ouvai]ent tenir dans deux voitures » pour se rendre sur le lieu de la conférence...

L’enjeu d’une conférence

Un Manifeste, rédigé par Trotski, est adopté au cours la conférence. La position des internationalistes est claire : « Voici plus d’un an que dure la guerre ! Des millions de cadavres couvrent les champs de bataille. Des millions d’hommes seront, pour le reste de leurs jours, mutilés. L’Europe est devenue un gigantesque abattoir d’hommes. Quels que soient les responsables immédiats du déchaînement de cette guerre, une chose est certaine : la guerre qui a provoqué tout ce chaos est le produit de l’impérialisme. Elle est issue de la volonté des classes capitalistes de chaque nation de vivre de l’exploitation du travail humain et des richesses naturelles de l’univers ». Le capitalisme est désigné comme l’adversaire à abattre pour rétablir la paix. Pour les zimmerwaldiens, il n’y a qu’une seule solution : la défense du socialisme abandonné par les dirigeants de la IIe Internationale et la réaffirmation de l’unité de la classe ouvrière par-delà les clivages nationaux : « Aujourd’hui, il faut, restant sur le terrain de la lutte de classe, agir pour votre propre cause, pour le but sacré du socialisme, pour l’émancipation des peuples opprimés et des classes asservies ».

Une commission socialiste internationale est désignée pour coordonner les efforts du groupe, mais surtout pour diffuser auprès des travailleurs l’idée qu’il faut rompre avec leur bourgeoisie nationale et tendre la main à leurs frères de classe. Lénine aurait souhaité une condamnation plus ferme des dirigeants socialistes majoritaires et l’annonce explicite de la nécessaire reconstruction d’une Internationale, mais il n’obtient pas gain de cause. Bon joueur, il suit la majorité, mais organise ses partisans dans la gauche zimmerwaldienne, appelée à devenir ce que l’on a tendance à considérer comme l’embryon de la future Internationale communiste.

Premiers bilans

Difficile de se représenter l’écho qu’eut cette réunion auprès des peuples en guerre, et plus particulièrement au sein de l’Internationale en lambeaux, car la censure a évidemment veillé à ce qu’un mur de silence soit élevé autour de cet événement. Pensez donc, des socialistes de pays en conflit qui fraternisent et travaillent à l’avènement d’un nouvel ordre social !

Trotsky, en exil à Paris depuis décembre 1914, poursuit la difficile diffusion de son journal pacifiste Naché Slovo avec l’aide d’instituteurs comme Fernand Loriot, ainsi qu’avec Pierre Monatte et Alfred Rosmer, les animateurs de la Vie ouvrière. Ces militants lancent en novembre 1915 un Comité pour la reprise des relations internationales (CRRI). Son but est de rassembler des militants de la SFIO et de la CGT désireux de diffuser les résolutions de Zimmerwald au sein de leurs organisations.

Ce groupe, qui n’a jamais dépassé les 150 adhérents, est finalement doublé sur sa gauche, à partir de 1918, par la fraction pro-bolchevique qui va provoquer à Tours une scission malhabile, amenée à rejeter dans les bras des « socialistes de guerre » nombre d’oppositionnels de la première heure.

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