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Une semaine après les révélations des « Panama papers »

Vote de la directive « secret des affaires »

mardi 19 avril 2016 par Jean-Jacques Chavigné

 

Le 14 avril, malgré les révélations des « Panama papers » sur les milliers de personnes (dirigeants politiques ou leurs proches, chefs d’entreprise, membres de la Fifa, sportifs professionnels, détenteurs d’importants patrimoines…) qui cherchaient à profiter de sociétés offshore pour échapper à l’impôt, le Parlement européen a voté une directive qui aurait rendu impossibles ou très périlleuses, pour les lanceurs d’alerte, ces révélations.

En toute hypocrisie

À la suite des révélations des « Panama papers », François Hollande a félicité les « lanceurs d’alerte ». Pierre Moscovici a déclaré qu’il demanderait que l’Union européenne ait sa propre liste de « paradis fiscaux ». Michel Sapin a ajouté le Panama à la très mince liste française de six de ces paradis.

Mais, en même temps, tous les trois ont soutenu la directive sur « le secret des affaires ». La mobilisation de dizaines d’associations, d’ONG, la pétition de Lise Lucet qui avait recueilli plus de 500 000 signatures, rien n’y a fait. L’intérêt des multinationales passe avant les libertés fondamentales des personnes et les droits syndicaux.

Le retour d’un loupé de la loi Macron

La loi Macron prévoyait 350 000 euros d’amende et jusqu’à trois mois de prison pour ceux qui oseraient publier des informations qui n’auraient pas l’heur de plaire à une entreprise. Devant le scandale provoqué par une telle mesure, le gouvernement avait dû la retirer du projet de loi. Elle fait son retour avec la directive européenne.

Une fois votée, celle-ci devra, en effet, être intégrée à toutes les législations nationales des pays de l’Union européenne. Ces législations n’auront pas la possibilité de modifier le contenu de la directive dans le sens d’une moindre sévérité, elles ne pourront, au contraire, qu’aggraver les mesures prévues. Les 350 000 euros et les trois mois de prison pourront donc faire leur retour.

Le contenu de la directive « secret des affaires »

C’est la loi du silence qui est étendue à l’ensemble des activités des entreprises. Comme l’écrivent Eva Joly, Pascal Durand, Aurélie Filipetti et Christian Paul… [1] : « Ce projet de directive fait du droit à l’information une exception », alors que le droit au secret pour les entreprises devient la règle.

Un lanceur d’alerte, un journaliste, un syndicaliste qui dévoilera les secrets d’une entreprise saura qu’il risque gros : une condamnation pénale, une condamnation à des dommages et intérêts qui pourraient atteindre des sommes énormes et, de toute façon, des dizaines de milliers d’euros à dépenser en frais de justice. Il ne pourra, donc, que beaucoup hésiter avant de se lancer dans une opération de divulgation de ce qui pourrait être considéré comme un « secret des affaires ». La démocratie reculera une nouvelle fois, pour protéger les intérêts des firmes transnationales.

La directive consacre, en effet, un principe particulièrement flou de « protection des informations relatives à la vie des entreprises contre toute forme de divulgation publique ». Sur la base de ce principe très général, ce sera au juge d’apprécier s’il y a eu violation du secret des affaires ou non. Un syndicat ou un journaliste qui divulguerait l’annonce d’un plan social pourrait être condamné puisqu’il s’agit d’une information susceptible de profiter à des entreprises concurrentes de la société qui a programmé ce plan de licenciements. Ce sera au juge d’apprécier, par exemple, s’il suffisait que cette divulgation ait eu lieu ou s’il fallait que le nombre de licenciements soit précisé pour qu’il y ait violation du secret des affaires.

Véronique Marquet, avocate, membre du collectif « Informer n’est pas un délit » affirme « Cela va créer un renversement de la charge de la preuve pour les journalistes, qui devront prouver que la diffusion de l’information était légitime. Cela revient à leur demander s’ils sont prêts à assumer le risque d’être condamnés, ce qui constitue une vraie arme de dissuasion à disposition des entreprises » [2].

Le cabinet panaméen Mossack Fonseca, la Société générale et bien d’autres banques et entreprises mises en cause par les révélations des « Panama papers » auraient pu s’appuyer sur la directive qui vient d’être votée pour demander la condamnation des journalistes qui ont publié des articles à propos de ces révélations.

Le prétexte de cette directive est la lutte contre l’espionnage industriel

Pourtant, les libéraux européens à l’origine de cette directive ont refusé de limiter l’utilisation des informations protégées à des fins strictement économiques. Pour le Commissaire européen Johannes Hahn : « Il s’agit de promouvoir la confiance des milliers d’entreprises, la plupart des PME, qui innovent tous les jours ». Comme d’habitude, les PME qui sont pourtant très souvent sous la domination économique des grands groupes sont mises en avant. Comme d’habitude, les droits des salariés sont considérés comme nuls et non avenus. Le point de vue adopté par la directive est le même que celui du projet de loi El Khomri, lorsqu’il propose de rendre plus aisés les licenciements pour « faciliter la vie des TPE et PME ».

Pourtant, les eurodéputés écologistes avaient demandé que la directive précise explicitement que les journalistes ne pourraient être condamnés pour avoir fait leur travail ; cette proposition n’a pas été reprise.

Qui peut croire, dans ces conditions, que le but réel de la directive est de lutter contre l’espionnage industriel ?

503 parlementaires européens pour la directive, 131 contre, 18 abstentions

Sur les 652 eurodéputés présents à Strasbourg, ce 14 avril, 503 se sont prononcés pour la directive. La très grande majorité des membres du Parti socialiste européen a voté pour, aux côtés de la droite européenne. La Gauche unitaire et les Ecologistes ont voté contre.

Après les scandales financiers révélés par les « Swissleaks », les « Luxleaks », les « Panama papers », le scandale du Mediator ou les logiciels truqués de Volkswagen, comment le Parlement européen a-t-il pu voter une directive qui rendra beaucoup plus difficile le rôle des lanceurs d’alerte et des journalistes ?

Aujourd’hui, les lanceurs d’alerte ne sont déjà pas à la fête [3]. La France a refusé de donner asile à Edward Snowden ou à Julian Assange. Le premier avait révélé le scandale de la surveillance de masse par la NSA, mais seule la Russie a accepté de lui donner (pour un an) l’asile politique. Julian Assange, militant de Wikileaks, a trouvé refuge à l’ambassade d’Équateur à Rome. Stéphanie Gibaud avait divulgué le démarchage illégal d’UBS : elle ne trouve plus d’emploi et vit des minima sociaux. Hervé Falciani a fourni à la Police judiciaire française la liste de 9 000 « évadés fiscaux » : il a été condamné à 5 ans de prison par la justice suisse, mais ce citoyen français ne peut être extradé. Antoine Delfour, dont le procès commencera le 26 avril, a révélé les accords fiscaux du Luxembourg qui jouait le rôle de plaque tournante de l’évasion fiscale en Europe : il est inculpé pour vol et blanchiment d’argent.

Ce sera bien pire, demain, avec la directive sur le secret des affaires.

Notes

[1] Tribune Libération - 15 juin 2015 « Le secret des affaires contre la démocratie en Europe »

[2] Anne-Aël Durand et Mathilde Damgé : « Les Panama papers auraient-ils été possibles avec la directive sur le secret des affaires ? » - Le Monde - 16/04/2016

[3] Voir l’article de Quentin Vasseur dans Le Monde du 13 avril 2016 « Edward Snowden, Stéphane Gibaud, Hervé Falciani… Que deviennent les lanceurs d’alerte ? »

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