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Les infléchissements du droit

lundi 25 avril 2016 par Philippe Lewandowski

 
Nous publions ci-dessous la chronique Palestine de notre ami Philippe Lewandowski, parue dans Démocratie&Socialisme n°233 de mars 2016.

Il faut bien se rendre à l’évidence : si le gouvernement israélien s’assied avec arrogance sur les résolutions de l’ONU et sur les fondements du droit international, il n’en demeure pas moins vrai que, paradoxalement, il s’évertue en même temps à donner une apparence juridique à tout ce qui lui permet, tant à l’intérieur qu’à l’extérieur de frontières caractérisées par un flou soigneusement entretenu, de poursuivre une entreprise de colonisation de peuplement.

Cette sophistique ne saurait toutefois leurrer que des naïfs trop faibles ou consentants, et ne conforter que des complices qui se complairaient dans l’hypocrisie.

Bricolages juridiques

Promulguée en 1950, la Loi sur la propriété des absents [1], une des plus utilisées, est bien représentative du type de montage auquel il est fait recours. Le mécanisme mis en œuvre est très simple à décrire :

- 1er temps : on oblige à partir les habitants d’un lieu donné, que ce soit par la force ou la terreur, ou par une argutie quelconque.
- 2e temps : on les empêche de revenir, par tous les moyens possibles ou imaginables.
- 3e temps : on déclare les biens ainsi « abandonnés » en déshérence, et on en confie la mise en valeur à un organisme d’État ; cet organisme n’est cependant autorisé à en accorder la sous-traitance qu’à des personnes, associations ou entreprises définies comme juives. Et le tour est joué. Il y a bien sûr de multiples variantes dites justificatives : nécessité militaire, mur de séparation, infraction supposée, etc. La nouvelle « légalité » veut faire jurisprudence.

Western en Asie occidentale

Il se trouve cependant de fortes têtes qui s’obstinent à s’en tenir à une conception du droit plus conforme aux normes démocratiques ordinairement reconnues. Et, ô sacrilège, il ne s’agit pas seulement de Palestiniens, mais aussi de citoyens à part entière. Leur traitement sera différencié.

Pour les derniers, considérés comme traîtres ou hérétiques, outre les intimidations de rigueur, il sera fait appel à un certain décorum en vue de les isoler et d’étouffer leur voix : c’est à cela que s’emploie le projet de loi, approuvé par Netanyahou, portant sur les nouvelles exigences de transparence imposées aux associations israéliennes [2]. L’objectif de cette mesure va bel et bien dans le sens de leur mise hors la loi, ainsi que le note Meron Rapoport : « La récente campagne contre Breaking the Silence, B’tselem et leurs semblables semble être une manœuvre visant à les repousser depuis la marge vers le domaine de l’illégalité » [3].

En ce qui concerne les Palestiniens, les procédés sont plus expéditifs. Citons Gidéon Lévy : « Le permis consiste à tirer pour tuer. […]Un tel comportement est devenu non seulement légitime, mais aussi normatif, comme si aucune autre réponse n’était possible. […] Les Israéliens n’ont jamais eu la gâchette aussi facile tandis que l’indifférence du public israélien n’a jamais été aussi totale » [4]. Dès lors se pose une question inquiétante : la loi du Colt (ou de l’Uzi, arme plus moderne), qui caractérisait jadis le Far West, est-elle en passe de supplanter une loi déjà elle-même sujette à caution ?

Ingérences tous azimuts

En dépit de la supériorité technologique de son armement et de ses rodomontades, le gouvernement israélien se trouve acculé à ouvrir un second front face à ce qu’il considère comme une menace stratégique susceptible de le forcer à mettre réellement en application les principes du droit international : la campagne BDS (Boycott – Désinvestissement – Sanctions). À défaut d’une opinion publique qu’il parvient de moins en moins à tromper et manipuler, ce sont les modalités d’expression de cette dernière qui entrent alors dans son collimateur : que ce soit en Europe ou en Amérique du Nord, il s’efforce de susciter des dispositions juridiques ou législatives visant tout bonnement à bâillonner, si ce n’est interdire, cette campagne [5].

Attachés à la liberté d’expression tout comme à l’égalité de tous devant la loi, il nous incombe de combattre et rejeter des ingérences qui reviennent à vouloir criminaliser des actions consistant simplement à imposer le respect du droit international par un État qui s’en moque et les bafoue jour après jour.

Notes

[1] Anwar Abu Eisheh, « Loi sur la propriété des absents », consulté le 06-03-2016.

[2] Charles Enderlin, « Israël à l’heure de l’Inquisition », Le Monde diplomatique n°744, mars 2016.

[3] Meron Rapoport, « Israël : réduire les témoins au silence », Middle East Eye, 05-01-2016 , consulté le 06-03-2016.

[4] Gidéon Lévy, « Quand tuer est devenu la norme », 05-03-2016, consulté le 06-03-2016.

[5] Glenn Greenwald & Andrew Fishman, « Criminaliser le combat contre l’occupation israélienne est la plus grande menace contre la liberté d’expression en Occident », 24-02-2016, consulté le 06-03-2016.

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