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Le « costard » de Macron

lundi 30 mai 2016 par Jean-Jacques Chavigné

 

En se permettant de répondre à un jeune militant CGT, vêtu d’un T-shirt, qui lui faisait une remarque sur son beau costume, « la meilleure façon de se payer un costard, c’est de travailler » , Emmanuel Macron ne se contentait pas d’exprimer son mépris envers tous ceux que frappent le chômage et la précarité ; il se trompait aussi très lourdement.

Si Macron veut vraiment savoir ce que signifie « se payer un costard », qu’il se présente à une élection

Il comprendra aussitôt qu’entre les sondages d’opinion et une élection il y a un monde. La grande majorité de ceux qui ont, aujourd’hui, une « bonne opinion » d’Emmanuel Macron sont des gens de droite ou, qui se prétendent comme lui, "ni de gauche ni de droite", c’est-à-dire en réalité "ni de gauche... ni de gauche", selon la formule toujours aussi pertinente de François Mitterrand. Si Macron se présentait à une élection - ce qu’il n’a jamais osé faire - les gens de droite qui ont une si bonne opinion de lui n’en voteraient pas moins utile, c’est-à-dire pour Alain Juppé ou Nicolas Sarkozy, ou tout autre candidat LR ou UDI. Quant aux gens de gauche, ils préfèreraient voter à gauche.

Nul doute qu’Emmanuel Macron connaîtrait, en bien pire encore, le sort de Manuel Valls en 2014. Le nouveau Premier ministre caracolait alors, à près de 60 % dans les sondages d’opinion mais, bien qu’il se soit engagé à fond dans la campagne électorale, le PS n’a pourtant recueilli que 13,98 % des voix, loin derrière la droite (20,81 %) et surtout le FN (24,86 %). Pourtant, Manuel Valls avait l’appareil du PS derrière lui, même si beaucoup de militants du PS commençaient à trainer les pieds. Emmanuel Macron ne dispose d’aucune force militante organisée, si ce n’est « En marche ! », ce qui revient à peu près au même.

Emmanuel Macron rend les chômeurs responsables du chômage

L’ancien banquier d’affaires, devenu secrétaire général adjoint de l’Élysée en 2012, puis ministre de l’Économie et des Finances en 2014, est l’un des premiers responsables de la politique économique, et donc de l’augmentation considérable du nombre de chômeurs entre mai 2012 et aujourd’hui. Près de 1,3 million de chômeurs supplémentaires, toutes catégories (A, B, C, D et E) pour la France entière.

Mais c’est le même Emmanuel Macron qui se permet de donner des leçons à ceux qui subissent les effets de sa politique, en leur affirmant, avec mépris, que s’ils voulaient trouver un emploi, ils en trouveraient. Pour lui, il n’y aurait qu’à se baisser pour ramasser un emploi.

C’est toujours la même ineptie de droite : si les chômeurs ne trouvent pas d’emplois, c’est qu’ils n’en cherchent pas et que les indemnités chômage sont trop élevées.

Il y avait 200 000 demandeurs d’emplois en France, en 1970, contre 6 430 000, aujourd’hui. Quel esprit un tant soit peu sensé pourrait penser qu’une génération spontanée d’un quelconque « virus de la fainéantise » a ainsi infecté 6,5 millions d’habitants de notre pays ? Il faudrait chercher une autre explication un peu plus consistante à la montée du chômage.

Les indemnités chômage représentaient en 1970, près de 70 % du dernier salaire et étaient versées sans dégressivité pendant 3 ans, après seulement 3 mois de cotisation. Il n’y avait pourtant que 200 000 chômeurs. Il faudrait, là encore, chercher ailleurs une explication un peu plus cohérente à la montée du chômage et de la précarité.

François Hollande partage le même point de vue

Il l’a prouvé en reprenant à son compte, dans sa conférence de presse du 20 juin 2016 le même raisonnement que la droite et en insistant sur le chiffre de « 200 ou 300 000 offres d’emploi non pourvues ». Chiffre qui fournissait la preuve « évidente » que la cause du chômage était bien le refus des demandeurs d’emploi d’accepter les emplois qui leur étaient proposés.

La réalité est, cependant, bien différente. D’abord, selon Pôle emploi, le nombre d’emplois non pourvus, faute de candidats, se limitait à 21 500, soit 0,1 % des 21 millions de recrutements annuels. Ensuite parce que les emplois proposés et refusés étaient souvent du type « quatre heures de ménage par mois ». Comment de telles offres d’emploi pouvaient-elles être considérées par François Hollande comme des emplois décents ? En quoi refuser un CDD de 4 heures ou de 4 jours par mois pourrait-il changer quoi que ce soit à la réalité du chômage et de la précarité ?

Les causes du chômage sont à chercher dans la politique de François Hollande, Manuel Valls et Emmanuel Macron

D’abord dans la politique d’austérité qui a étouffé la croissance pendant 4 ans et qui continue ses méfaits. Ensuite, dans le refus de diminuer le temps de travail alors que c’est la seule méthode qui a fait ses preuves dans la lutte contre le chômage. Les lois Aubry I et II, en 1998 et 2000, ont permis la création de 500 000 emplois à temps plein, qui se sont avérés être d’une grande pérennité, même après la crise bancaire de 2007-2008.

À l’évidence, François Hollande, Manuel Valls ou Emmanuel Macron n’ont pas mesuré les effets que produirait le projet de loi El Khomri sur l’emploi. L’un des principaux objectifs de ce projet est de contourner les 35 heures, seuil de déclenchement des heures supplémentaires, grâce à la baisse du taux desdites heures (de 25 et 50 % à 10 % seulement) par accord d’entreprise et leur modulation sur 3 ans, permettant à l’employeur de ne les payer qu’au bout de la 4 822e heure ! Contourner ainsi une mesure qui avait permis la création de 500 000 emplois, ferait au moins perdre autant d’emplois, avec des effets désastreux sur le chômage.

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