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Daech et la Palestine

mercredi 15 juin 2016 par Philippe Lewandowski

 

Si seuls quelques naïfs indécrottables et des cyniques éhontés s’obstinent à relayer les amalgames mensongers entre une lutte pour vivre dans la dignité et les prétentions sanglantes d’aventuriers mortifères, il peut néanmoins s’avérer utile de préciser les rapports de deux mouvements qu’en réalité tout oppose.

Les Palestiniens en sont parfaitement conscients, et ce sont les réflexions d’Al-Shabaka, un think tank fondé par des intellectuels palestiniens [1], qui constituent les sources principales du présent article.

Comment Daech [2] se sert du thème palestinien

Sans surprise, les fanatiques du monstre né de la destruction de l’État irakien par l’armée des États-Unis d’Amérique tentent d’attiser et de récupérer la vague de violences individuelles suicidaires qui a marqué la jeunesse palestinienne dans les derniers mois de l’année 2015. Ils se gardent cependant de relever les motifs explicites de ce désespoir, et s’efforcent de leur donner, volens nolens, une coloration religieuse : Daech dit ainsi que ces attaques sont importantes « non pour un bout de terre, une patrie, ou une affiliation organisationnelle, mais au nom de Dieu » ; alors que, par exemple, la note laissée par une jeune femme palestinienne tuée lors d’une tentative d’attaque en novembre précise qu’elle désirait agir pour défendre sa patrie.

De la même manière, Daech tente de tirer profit du discrédit réel des forces politiques organisées : « N’attendez rien du Fatah, ni du Hamas ; ne cherchez pas de solution chez eux ; il n’y a pas de paix dans ce qu’ils peuvent proposer ; fiez-vous à Dieu. »

En tout état de cause, la propagande de Daech vise à délégitimer toute perspective d’action politique et à la transformer en conflit d’ordre religieux, en clair, en guerre de religion.

Ce qui ne reflète nullement les réalités du terrain.

Le Hamas et Daesh [3]

En 2014, Benjamin Netanyahou, premier ministre et principal menteur de l’État israélien, déclare sans vergogne aux Nations Unies : « Le Hamas est Daech et Daech est le Hamas. » Il sait pourtant pertinemment que non seulement c’est faux, mais aussi qu’il s’agit d’irréconciliables ennemis.

Du point de vue doctrinaire, Daech accuse le Hamas d’être un mouvement apostat. « Pour Daech et d’autres groupes « takfiri » [4] en général, des mouvements comme le Hamas sont séculiers et non-islamiques, puisque le Hamas est d’abord un mouvement de résistance contre l’occupation israélienne et croit en une autorité islamique modérée. »

Du point de vue politique, « le mouvement que représente Daech rejette entièrement la démocratie et la considère comme un système de gouvernance apostat. […] Daech considère toute expression démocratique telle que des élections comme une manifestation d’apostasie, et tout mouvement ou individu prenant part à des élections comme des apostats ».

Du point de vue militaire, « le Hamas a dans les faits réglé de manière définitive le sort d’un groupe similaire à Daech. En 2009, le leader d’un groupe armé a annoncé la création de l’Émirat islamique à Gaza dans la mosquée Ibn Taymiyyah. […] Le Hamas a détruit le projet d’émirat dans l’œuf en tuant les membres du groupe ».

Bien entendu, tout comme l’aviation turque bombarde sans vergogne les Kurdes du Rojava (Kurdistan syrien) qui ont su faire reculer les hordes de Daech, l’État d’Israël continue sans état d’âme à prendre régulièrement pour cible les Palestiniens enfermés dans la bande de Gaza.

Le sens de la lutte palestinienne

Il serait absurde de prétendre que l’Islam ne joue aucun rôle dans certains récits sur l’identité palestinienne et ses manifestations politiques. Mais il importe de noter que, même dans des groupes comme le Hamas, l’identité prédominante est celle de Palestinien plus que celle de musulman, et que l’objectif politique est celui de l’autodétermination palestinienne et non l’établissement d’un État islamique transnational.

Al-Shabaka recommande donc aux Palestiniens de protéger activement le sens de leur lutte à la fois contre la démonisation dont l’affublent les voix anti-palestiniennes et contre les tentatives de dévoiement que mène Daech : « Ce n’est pas seulement une question de devoir moral, mais aussi une valeur stratégique. Les griefs palestiniens sont pleinement humains, tangibles et actuels, et sont fondés sur les droits humains universellement reconnus. Ils sont dus non pas à une question imaginée de foi religieuse, mais à une réalité politique sous laquelle des générations de Palestiniens de toutes croyances ont souffert d’un nettoyage ethnique, de la colonisation, de la privation de ressources naturelles, des attaques militaires, de l’occupation, de blocus, et de l’exil, parmi d’autres crimes. »

La bonne question à poser est celle de toute enquête un tant soit peu sérieuse : à qui profitent in fine les amalgames et autres essais de dévoiement récupérateur ?

Notes

[1] https://al-shabaka.org/en, consulté le 8 mai 2016. En particulier Samar Batrawi, Understanding ISIS’s Palestine propaganda ; Samar Batrawi, How the Islamic State is seeking to exploit the Palestinian cause ; Belal Shobaki, Why it’s dangerous to conflate Hamas and Daesh.

[2] Daech ou Daesh : acronyme arabe pour ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria).

[3] Nous ne parlerons pas ici du Fatah, dont la définition séculière suffit à le faire honnir de Daesh.

[4] Le terme takfiri signifie littéralement « excommunication », ce qui emporte le prononcé de la peine de mort. Les takfiris considèrent les musulmans ne partageant pas leur point de vue comme étant des apostats, ce qui dès lors les autoriserait à verser leur sang.

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